The spring 2021 issue of Anglican and Episcopal History (AEH) considers approaches by Anglican Communion clerics responding to racist policies in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and at the University of the South, Sewanee. These two research essays are complemented by 3 church reviews and 25 book reviews.
In “The Brightness of Dying: Arthur Shearly Cripps as Poet and Priest,” Deanna Briody investigates one missionary’s work among the Mashona people in Southern Rhodesia. She examines the English-born Cripps’ (1869-1952) prolific writing focused on Christology as “the central and driving force of his life” to conclude that his “theology of God as self-emptying sufferer… informed his poetic vision.” Briody considers Cripps’ hatred of racism as motivating his advocacy of territorial segregation in An Africa for Africans (1927). The irony of advocating racial segregation as a practical way to protect Mashona land from European encroachment adds complexity to historical debates.
Briody is graduate writing tutor at Trinity School for Ministry in Ambridge, Pa. She attends Trinity Episcopal Cathedral in Pittsburgh.
The Rev. Brandt L. Montgomery, chaplain of St. James School near Hagerstown in the Diocese of Maryland, then considers the sixth Bishop of Alabama’s actions during the 1952-53 integration debate at the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee.
In “Charles Colcock Jones Carpenter and the Sewanee Integration Controversy,” Montgomery argues that the Sewanee debate “…was a turning point for Carpenter on the issue of race” which moved him “toward a gradualist integration philosophy” designed to combat fears of “social chaos.” A decade later, Bishop Carpenter (1899-1969) became lead signatory to the 1963 “Statement by Alabama Clergymen” that was rebuked by the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in his iconic “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” Montgomery concludes that Carpenter’s gradualist approach put him on “the negative side of civil rights history.”
In addition to these two studies, church review editor J. Barrington Bates offers his third reflection on approaches to worship in Episcopal churches during the COVID-19 pandemic, including a detailed account of the Anglo-Catholic St. Mark’s Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, part of the Diocese of Pennsylvania. A second church review invites readers to learn about a pre-pandemic Sunday Mass at Old St. Paul’s in Edinburgh, part of the Scottish Episcopal Church, and a final piece considers the three mainline Protestant chapels of Berry College, an institution founded by educational pioneer and Episcopalian Martha Berry (1865-1942), in Rome, Georgia.
These articles along with a wide range of book reviews related to current scholarship are available immediately to members of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church. Articles are later indexed on JSTOR.org and other online platforms.
The Historical Society of the Episcopal Church invites applications for grants to be made in 2021. Awards are made as one of the Society’s objectives: promotion of the preservation of the particular heritage of the Episcopal Church and its antecedents. To be considered, applications must be submitted by May 1st with awards announced in July. Recipients are expected to make an appropriate submission to the Society’s journal, Anglican and Episcopal History.
General GrantsApplications for a general grant may come from individuals as well as academic and ecclesiastical groups. Requests are received to support significant research, conferences, and publication relating to the history of the Episcopal Church as well as the Anglican church in the worldwide Anglican Communion. A typical request may include funding for travel to visit archives or other resources, dissertation research, or seed money or support for a larger project. Examples of past awards funded include support of documentary films, dissertation research, publication of books and articles, support for a history conference and other purposes. Awards funded are generally $500-$2,000, depending on the number of awards approved and amount of funds available.
Robert W. Prichard Prize next awarded in July 2022.The Robert W. Prichard Prize recognizes the best Ph.D., Th.D., or D.Phil. dissertation which considers the history of the Episcopal Church (including 17th and 18th century British colonies that became the United States) as well as the Anglican church in the worldwide Anglican Communion. The prize is named to honor the Rev. Dr. Robert W. Prichard, a noted historian and author in the discipline who was a longtime member and President of the Historical Society Board. The application process opens February 1, 2022. Applicants may submit a dissertation for consideration successfully defended between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2021. It may be submitted by the author or on their behalf. The dissertation need not focus solely, or even principally, on the history of the Episcopal Church or Anglicanism. The selection committee welcomes dissertations which place that history in conjunction with other strands of church history, or even place it in dialogue with non-ecclesial themes of American history. The Episcopal or Anglican element of the work should be a constitutive, not peripheral, part of the dissertation. Submissions should be a full electronic version of the dissertation, complete with all scholarly apparatus. The recipient will receive a $2,000 prize and be a guest of the Historical Society at the HSEC Annual Meeting to receive the award.
For details including application instruction and information, visit hsec.us/grants.
The winter issue of Anglican and Episcopal History (AEH) is now in print. The latest issue of the peer-reviewed journal of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church features studies and book reviews that examine the relationship between monarchy, revolution, Puritanism, and the Church of England.
Two detailed studies consider the role of Anglicanism in England’s seventeenth century revolutions.
First, John William Klein considers a rural case study of patronage during the Nonjuring Schism, a division in the Church of England created when some clerics refused to swear allegiance to monarchs William and Mary after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. In “Francis Cherry, Patronage, and the Shottesbrooke Nonjurors”, Klein offers a rural case study of patronage based on the relationship between Anglo-Irish scholar and theologian Henry Dodwell the Elder (1641-1711) and country squire Francis Cherry (1665-1713). Klein concludes that the countryside estate of Shottesbrooke Park in Berkshire, England, was “a model of rural patronage and community for Nonjurors” and argues that “patronage was essential to survival of the Nonjurors.” The small Nonjuring movement fizzled by the mid-1700s.
Kent M. Pettit then invites readers to consider ways King Charles II used the Great Fire of London in 1666 to strengthen the shaky monarchy. Pettit considers the debate between preservation and innovation in regards to the destruction of the medieval Old St. Paul’s Cathedral. He also invites parallels to present-day political and religious discussions in Paris regarding Notre Dame Cathedral. In “Saved as by Fire (and poets): Charles II, Restored Head of the Church”, Pettit argues that Charles II’s leadership and timely maneuvering increased the monarch’s power as the king offered a Christian vision of “grace and hope” in contrast to pessimistic Puritans’ emphasis on “guilt or sin”.
AEH also includes multiple book reviews related to revolution and the Church of England, Anglican studies, women’s studies, and more.
In the first book review related to revolution, Norman Jones of Utah State University considers The Puritans: A Transatlantic History by David D. Hall. Then, C. Scott Pryor of Campbell University School of Law reviews Diarmaid MacCulloch’s Thomas Cromwell: A Life; and Tanner J. Moore of Purdue University considers the expanded edition of Not Peace but a Sword: The Political Theology of the English Reformation by Stephen Baskerville.
Several helpful volumes related to Anglican studies are also included. Among them are: Reasonable Radical? Reading the Writings of Martyn Percy edited by Ian S. Markham and Joshua Daniel; Costly Communion: Ecumenical Initiative and Sacramental Strife in the Anglican Communion edited by Mary Chapman and Jeremy Bonner; The Future of Orthodox Anglicanism edited by Gerald McDermott; and Common Prayer: Reflections on Episcopal Worship by Joseph Pagano and Amy E. Richter.
Book reviews related to women’s studies include Joan R. Gundersen on Ordinary Saints: Women, Work, and Faith in Newfoundland by Bonnie Morgan and Sheryl A. Kujawa-Holbrook reviewing English Aristocratic Women and the Fabric of Piety, 1450-1550 by Barbara J. Harris and Feminist Interpretations of Mary Astell edited by Alice Sowaal and Penny A. Weiss.
In addition to these studies and book reviews, church review editor J. Barrington Bates takes readers to a worship service at St. Mary’s Episcopal Church in Springfield Center, New York, part of the Diocese of Albany.
These articles and other book reviews in the winter issue are available to members of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church and later available via JSTOR.org and other online services.
The Historical Society of the Episcopal Church announces election of the Rev. Dr. Sheryl Kujawa-Holbrook to be the sixth Editor of Anglican and Episcopal History, its peer-reviewed journal. Her tenure will follow Dr. Ed Bond who has served as Editor since 2007. One purpose of the Historical Society is promotion of the preservation of the particular heritage of the Episcopal Church and its antecedents. Published quarterly since 1932, the journal aids this purpose and is a vehicle for publication throughout the Anglican Communion.
Kujawa-Holbrook is Vice President of Academic Affairs and Dean of Faculty of Claremont School of Theology. She holds degrees from Marquette University, Sarah Lawrence College, Harvard Divinity School, Episcopal Divinity School, Columbia University and Union Theological Seminary, and earned a Ph.D. from Boston College. She is a priest of the Episcopal Diocese of Los Angeles and serves as a professor of Anglican Studies at Bloy House. An author of thirteen books, numerous articles, training manuals, curricula, and reviews, she is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. She worked for the Episcopal Church in education and ministries with young people. She has been Book Review Editor of Anglican and Episcopal History since 2010.
“My interest in this position is to play a role in defining the field and in setting the stage for the next generation of scholars, practitioners, and interested readers in Anglican and Episcopal History” Kujawa-Holbrook said. She noted that “after a generation in theological education, I am well aware that many of the supports that used to be in place for faculty, emerging scholars, and practitioners are no longer there.” Recognizing a shifting environment, she observes “it is a crucial time to work toward a sustainable future by cultivating research, writing, teaching, and practice in historical studies related to our unique branch of the Christian tradition. All that the journal and our historical organizations do is an investment in the field, integral to sharing the extraordinary richness and depth of our tradition.”
To ensure a smooth transition, Kujawa-Holbrook will work with retiring Editor Bond over the next two issues. Additional information about Anglican and Episcopal History may be found at hsec.us/aeh.
For a number of years, Historical Society member, Byron Rushing, worked with St. Thomas African Episcopal Church, Philadelphia and The Union of Black Episcopalians to update the "official" biography of Absalom Jones in Lesser Feasts and Fasts of the Episcopal Church. Rushing is Vice-President of the General Convention's House of Deputies. Earlier volumes of LF&F provided information on Jones that was less accurate than possible and contained a number of errors.
Arthur Sudler’s biography of Absalom Jones is now the “official” biography in Lesser Feasts and Fasts 2018 on p.90 and reproduced fully below. A few edits were made in the LFF volume to fit onto one page. The printed volume is available from Church Publishing.
REVISED ABSALOM JONES BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATIONBy Arthur K. Sudler, William Carl Bolivar Director, Historical Society & Archives, African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas
Absalom Jones was born enslaved to Abraham Wynkoop a wealthy Anglican planter in 1746 in Delaware. He was working in the fields when Abraham recognized that he was an intelligent child and ordered that he be trained to work in the house. Absalom eagerly accepted instruction in reading. He also saved money he was given and bought books (among them a primer, a spelling book, and a bible). Abraham Wynkoop died in 1753 and by 1755 his younger son Benjamin had inherited the plantation. When Absalom was sixteen Benjamin Wynkoop sold the plantation and Absalom’s mother, sister, and five brothers. Wynkoop brought Absalom to Philadelphia where he opened a store and joined St. Peter’s Church. In Philadelphia Benjamin Wynkoop permitted Absalom to attend a night school for black people that was operated by Quakers following the tradition established by abolitionist teacher Anthony Benezet.
At twenty, with the permission of their masters, Absalom married Mary Thomas who was enslaved to Sarah King who also worshipped at St. Peter’s. The Rev. Jacob Duche performed the wedding at Christ Church. Absalom and his father-in-law, John Thomas, used their savings, and sought donations and loans primarily from prominent Quakers, in order to purchase Mary’s freedom. Absalom and Mary worked very hard to repay the money borrowed to buy her freedom. They saved enough money to buy property and to buy Absalom’s freedom. Although he repeatedly asked Benjamin Wynkoop to allow him to buy his freedom Wynkoop refused. Absalom persisted because as long as he was enslaved Wynkoop could take his property and his money. Finally, in 1784 Benjamin Wynkoop freed Absalom by granting him a manumission. Absalom continued to work in Wynkoop’s store as a paid employee.
Absalom left St. Peter’s Church and began worshipping at St. George’s Methodist Episcopal Church. He met Richard Allen who had been engaged to preach at St. George’s and the two became lifelong friends, Together, in 1787, they founded the Free African Society a mutual aid benevolent organization that was the first of its kind organized by and for black people. Members of the Society paid monthly dues for the benefit of those in need. At St George’s, Absalom and Richard served as lay ministers for the black membership. The active evangelism of Jones and Allen, greatly increased black membership at St George’s. The black members worked hard to help raise money to build an upstairs gallery intended to enlarge the church. The church leadership decided to segregate the black worshippers in the gallery, without notifying them. During a Sunday morning service a dispute arose over the seats black members had been instructed to take in the gallery and ushers attempted to physically remove them by first accosting Absalom Jones. Most of the black members present indignantly walked out of St. George’s in a body.
Prior to the incident at St. George’s the Free African Society had initiated religious services. Some of these services were presided over by The Rev. Joseph Pilmore an assistant St. Paul’s Episcopal Church. The Society established communication with similar black groups in other cities. In 1792 the Society began to build the African Church of Philadelphia. The church membership took a denominational vote and decided to affiliate with the Episcopal Church. Richard Allen withdrew from the effort as he favored affiliation with the Methodist Church. Absalom Jones was asked to provide pastoral leadership and after prayer and reflection he accepted the call.
The African Church was dedicated on July 17, 1794. The Rev. Dr. Samuel Magaw, rector St. Paul’s Church, preached the dedicatory address. Dr. Magaw was assisted at the service by The Rev. James Abercrombie, assistant minister at Christ Church. Soon thereafter the congregation applied for membership in the Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania on the following conditions: 1) that they be received as an organized body; 2) that they have control over their own local affairs; 3) that Absalom Jones be licensed as layreader, and, if qualified, be ordained as minister. In October 1794 it was admitted as the African Episcopal Church of St Thomas. The church was incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1796. Bishop William White ordained Jones as deacon in 1795 and as priest on September 21, 1802.
Jones was an earnest preacher. He denounced slavery, and warned the oppressors to “clean their hands of slaves.” To him, God was the Father, who always acted on “behalf of the oppressed and distressed.” But it was his constant visiting and mild manner that made him beloved by his congregation and by the community. St Thomas Church grew to over 500 members during its first year. The congregants formed a day school and were active in moral uplift, self-empowerment, and anti-slavery activities. Known as “the Black Bishop of the Episcopal Church,” Jones was an example of persistent faith in God and in the Church as God’s instrument. Jones died on this day in 1818.
Absalom's autobiographical sketch from Douglass' Annals (1862):
ABSALOM JONES AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH/ANNALS*
The following narrative is copied from the original manuscript written by himself:
“I, Absalom Jones was born in Sussex,” DEL., “on the 6th of November, 1746. I was small, when my master took me from the field to wait and attend on him in the house; and being very fond of learning, I was careful to save the pennies that were given to me by the ladies and gentlemen from time to time. I soon bought myself a primer, and begged to be taught by any body that I found able and willing to give me the least instruction. Soon after this, I was able to purchase a spelling book; for as my money increased, I supplied myself with books, among others, a Testament. For, fondness for books, gave me little or no time for the amusements that took up the leisure hours of my companions. By this course I became singular, and escaped many evils, and also saved my money.
In the year 1762, my mother, five brothers and a sister were sold, and I was brought to the city of Philadelphia with my master. My employment in this city was to wait in the store, pack up and carry out goods. In this situation, I had an opportunity, with the clerk, to get copies set for me; so that I was soon able to write to my mother and brothers, with my own hand. My spelling is bad for want of proper schooling.
In the year 1766, I asked my master the liberty of going one quarter to night-school, which he granted. I had a great desire to learn Arithmetic. In that quarter I learned Addition, Troy weight, Subtraction, Apothecaries’ weight, Practical multiplication, Practical Division, and Reduction.
In the year 1770, I married a wife who was a slave. I soon after proposed to purchase her freedom. To this her mistress agreed, for the sum of forty pounds. Not having the money in hand, I got an appeal drawn, and John Thomas, my father-in-law, and I called upon some of the principal Friends of this city. From some we borrowed, and from other we received donations. In this way we soon raised thirty pounds of the money, her mistress, Sarah King, forgiving the balance of ten pounds. By this time, my master’s family was increased, and I was much hurried in my servitude. However, I took a house, and for seven years, made it my business to work until twelve or one o’clock at night, to assist my wife in obtaining a livelihood, and to pay the money that was borrowed to purchase her freedom.
This being fully accomplished, and having a little money in hand, I made application to my master, in the year 1778, to purchase my own freedom; but, as this was not granted, I fortunately met with a small house and lot of ground, to be sold for one hundred and fifty pounds, continental money. Having laid by some hard money, I sold it for continental and purchased the lot. My desire for freedom increased, as I knew that while I was a slave, my house and lot might be taken as the property of my master. This induced me to make many applications to him for liberty to purchase my freedom; and on the first of October, 1784, he generously gave me a manumission. I have ever since continued in his service at good wages, and I still find it my duty, both late and early, to be industrious to improve the little estate that a kind Providence has put in my hands.
Since my freedom, I have built a couple of small houses on the small lot, which now let for twenty-two pounds a year.”
The Historical Society of the Episcopal Church offers a Syllabi Sharing resource through its website. Syllabi include a class structure outline, texts, assignments, and resource lists. They may be used by those teaching on or reading about the history of the Episcopal Church. They may be adapted for use as a teaching series in a parish, a church history course or for personal edification.
Three syllabi are currently available from educators in the field. The Rev. Dr. Robert Prichard, recently retired from Virginia Theological Seminary, shares two syllabi. The first includes the Colonial Era and Early National Period of the Episcopal Church with the second encompassing the period from 1830 to the 21st Century. The Rev. Dr. Lauren Winner, Duke Divinity School, shares a syllabus entitled The Anglican Tradition: History of the Protestant Episcopal Church in America. Educators are encouraged to submit additional syllabi that will be considered for addition to the sharing page.
Access to syllabi are a benefit of membership in the Historical Society. Members are able to log in to access a number of resources which are unavailable to the public. For information on becoming a member, visit hsec.us/membership.
The Historical Society of the Episcopal Church offers a Teaching Bibliography resource through its website. The bibliography is organized by theme and may be used by those teaching on or reading about the history of the Episcopal Church. It would be an excellent supplement for use in a teaching series in a parish, or personal edification.
Several topic areas are included. General texts on the history of the Episcopal Church include 21st century publications, early and late 20th century publications and 19th century publications. The Study of the History of Anglicanism provides publications from the broader Anglican tradition. Several are related to the history of African Americans, Women and Latinx in the Episcopal Church. The bibliography is intended to grow over time, so all are encouraged to submit suggested texts to be considered for inclusion.
Access to the bibliography is available to the public. Each title is linked to a source where they may be purchased. Many may be available through inter-library loan. To see the bibliography, visit hsec.us/bibliography.
Multiple studies and book reviews in the autumn 2020 issue of Anglican and Episcopal History (AEH) scrutinize legacies of racism and colonialism in churches. Two studies address changing historiography and practices influenced by decolonization.
“Historical Revision in Church: Re-examining the ‘Saint’ Edward Colston” investigates the legacy of a philanthropist, enslaver, and High Anglican who lived from 1636 to 1721. The study by Samuel J. Richards, a teacher at Shanghai American School in China, evaluates the role played by the Church of England in the development of the “cult of Colston” while describing actions at Bristol Cathedral starting in the early 2000s as “…part of a larger global pattern of historical revision and penance occurring in predominately white Christian communities coming to terms with complicity in the horrors of racism and slavery.”
Cn. Alan L. Hayes of Wycliffe College in the University of Toronto then examines “The Elusive Goal” of indigenous self-determination in the Anglican Church of Canada between 1967 and 2020. He argues “…colonial assumptions and structures have proven tenacious, and that, although Indigenous self-determination is consistent with historical patterns of Christian mission and organization, the theological, constitutional, and financial obstacles to decolonization have defied solution.” Hayes also explores models that could better promote indigenous self-determination within the Anglican Church of Canada.
In the final study, Jesse J. Lee, a doctoral candidate at Florida State University, invites readers to consider ways the Episcopal Church strived to maintain social unity amid great theological diversity and difference between Anglo-Catholics and lower-church Episcopalians in “The Contentious Conferences of 1924: A Study of the Proceedings of the Anglo-Catholic Priests’ Convention and the Thirty-Eighth Episcopal Church Congress.”
Book review editor Sheryl A. Kujawa-Holbrook then sets the tone for a series of reviews focused primarily on studies of black identity, racism, and slavery in the Atlantic World. Kujawa-Holbrook examines Breaking White Supremacy: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Black Social Gospel by Gary Dorrien. Other reviews include Christian Slavery: Conversion and Race in the Protestant Atlantic World by Katherine Gerbner, The Black Republic: African Americans and the Fate of Haiti by Brandon R. Byrd, Leonidas Polk: Warrior Bishop of the Confederacy by Huston Horn, Surviving Slavery in the British Caribbean by Randy M. Browne, and The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America. Among other topics, reviewers consider ways museums address religious history and Christian history, practice, and theology in Asia.
In addition to these studies and book reviews, church review editor J. Barrington Bates continues a series begun in the summer issue that examines ways congregations are adapting during the COVID-19 pandemic. The second review in the series takes readers to St. Alban’s Episcopal Church in Waco, part of the Diocese of Texas.
These articles and other book reviews in the autumn issue are available to members of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church and later available via JSTOR.org and other online services.
About Anglican and Episcopal History
Anglican and Episcopal History (ISSN 0896-8039), formerly The Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church, seeks to raise the level of discussion, provide a forum for exchange of ideas, and review books of real worth and of interest to educated Anglicans. It is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December. Full text articles are available through JSTOR.org and for members of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church at https://hsec.us/AEH.
About the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church
The Historical Society of the Episcopal Church (HSEC) is an association of people and entities dedicated to the preservation and dissemination of information on the history the Episcopal Church and its antecedents. Anyone who has an interest in the objectives of HSEC is invited to visit: https://hsec.us/membership.
The Homebrewed Christianity Podcast of August 14, 2020 features the Rev. Daniel Joslyn-Siemiatkoski, PhD, a member of the Board of Trustees of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church. The episode “A Christian Reading the Mishnah Avot & Weird Anglican Twitter” was sponsored by the Historical Society. In a conversation with host Tripp Fuller, Joslyn- Siemiatkoski shares his church experience, describes work a church historian and seminary professor, explores the nature of comparative theology, and discusses his recent book The More Torah, The More Light: A Christian Commentary on Mishnah Avot.
The Membership and Promotions Committee of the Historical Society has launched a number of initiatives to better fulfilling its purpose of preserving and disseminating information about the history of the Episcopal Church in the 21st century. It determined to sponsor a number of episodes on this podcast with 75,000 listeners each month and over 2 million downloads last year from over 150 countries. It has been sharing conversations between friends, theologians, philosophers, and scholars of all stripes since 2008 and boasts previous guests such as Rob Bell, N.T. Wright, Marcus Borg, Brian McLaren, Morgan Freeman, Walter Brueggemann, Phyllis Tickle, Diana Butler Bass, Richard Rohr and many other influential and emerging Christian thinkers.
Joslyn-Siemiatkoski is the Duncalf-Villavoso Professor of Church History at the Seminary of the Southwest where his teaching focuses on integrating Anglican and Episcopal identity with the broader sweep of Christian history and Jewish-Christian relations. He is author of Christian Memories of the Maccabean Martyrs and has authored chapters in various edited volumes and articles in Anglican Theological Review and Anglican and Episcopal History. He serves as an assisting priest at St. David’s Episcopal Church in Austin.
Historical Society of the Episcopal Church
Dedicated to preserving and disseminating information about the history of the Episcopal Church and its antecedents.
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